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In regards to your first question, I believe you're talking about the last threshold of Firestorm. Firestorm will only trigger a blight cascade when.

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The reason for these misgivings has to do with the "great diversity of theoretical approaches, practical problems and local research traditions" which exist in the wide spectrum of researchers who come from very diverse fields or professions. As a consequence, in the opinion of the aforementioned editors, "any categorisation of qualitative research practice into a series of progressive stages is likely to be experienced as unhelpful because of being too ideological"; it is even "likely to prevent people from learning from each other".

This last sentence is the one with which we would tend to agree most. We do not consider that the possible ideological interpretations that a classification into periods can cause is reason enough for refraining from the intellectual exercise of writing the history and judging the present and future scientific community , which is what is done in the publication.

It is equally probable that a non-historical presentation of research practice, which is without a doubt a less risky and more comfortable option, cause undesired ideological effects. Let us briefly outline its contribution. The aim here is not to get rid of the temporal focus, but rather to take advantage of a complementary framework which would facilitate the exploitation of "multiple routes of influence in the world of scholars, books and scholarly institutions" p. The origin and development of qualitative research is no longer analysed from only one centre; instead, the notions of simultaneity and interconnectivity are considered.

The background for this is an international stage characterised and conditioned by asymmetric relations or structural ones of the type centre-periphery in the emission of theories, models and research. Its analysis is subtle and penetrating, as the following simple definition indicates: "the theories and methodologies formulated from a centre position are more easily heard and seen" p. In our specific case, it confirms to us that the focus chosen for our narration of Spain can not be too mistaken.

The same goes for qualitative research as a special area. Instead of assuming the unidirectional progress of science, we should perceive the qualitative research scene as consisting of interconnected networks. The pertinence of our approach to the cartographic or pictorial depiction of qualitative social research in this case in Spain can be deduced from the above lines. However, there is also some implicit self-criticism in these same words. In concrete, the vision of a network of influences between groups of researchers who are situated in time and in space seems to contradict the idea of a research corpus specific to each country or group of countries 8.

However, the society in which the sociologist lives and works ends up conditioning his lines of research and even his way of doing research.


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That does not exclude outside influences, or the belonging to international schools of thought. The insistence of LINCOLN and DENZIN in connecting the past with the present and the future to the point of opening and closing his new edition with "the metaphor of the bridge" should be reconsidered, since it gives orientation and shows the extent in which they react to their critics.

As has been mentioned in the oral presentation of this paper in Berlin, there are political events which have singularly marked the individual and collective lives of the Spaniards in the past century. Above all, this is the case of the Civil War , the Franco Dictatorship and the following democratic transition. The great transformation of contemporary Spanish society, which has extended itself to the economic and cultural spheres, has taken place under the conditioning of this fact. It is difficult to understand the practice of social qualitative research in Spain out of this context.

As we will see, it is not only the biographies but also the intellectual quests of those who have been dedicated to thinking about the society among them, sociologists that are interwoven in that history. Spanish qualitative sociologists found their objects of study in specific milieus. Their methodological framework is also embedded in that context.

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However, we choose to name them differently, we propose alternative dates and we include a sixth moment or phase. In addition, we underline the role of the master of the Barcelona school of thought MARSAL in the fourth period and that of some of his disciples in more recent stages. We also define the last two phases with more emphasis on the practice of qualitative social research than on mere methodological reflection Figure 1.

Late Franco Regime and end, psychoanalysis, marxism, etc. Figure 1: Stages of qualitative social research in Spain [ 16 ]. This study emerged from the social sciences section of this institution. On our part, we also consider relevant the role of the writers, some of which have special intellectual, political or philosophical importance. Rather than giving a detailed list of those authors, what most interests us in this brief synthesis is to point out an aspect, which illustrates the influence of this excellent literature on the masters of the sociologists who would be active from the '60s to our days.

In order to get to know well the secrets of the Spanish society at present it was necessary to penetrate the thick material of the novels which were written in the period of the Restoration" DE MIGUEL b, p. For the moment, it is convenient to observe—having in mind the reader who comes from other national contexts, that the relation of anthropological and sociological ethnography with literary genres is well known and recognised in other latitudes as well ATKINSON et al.

This second period lasts from the parliamentary and socioeconomic crisis , the dictatorship of Primo de RIVERA , the Second Republic , until the end of Civil War, ; although this is a matter of dispute and some believe the period also includes the last years of the s. But, as these authors note, for some Spanish sociologists it means a sort of decline or withdrawal of the true sociological perspective understood as empirical studies ; while for others the evaluation of this influence is positive.

On our part, we think that these streams of thought are important in the search of the roots of qualitative methodology all over the world. But principles should have their corresponding practice in social research, something missing or lacking at this stage. This article can be helpful in evaluating the deeper knowledge about the roots of qualitative social research that are identified here. But from our point of view it is important to stress a paradox. The periods II and III give some of the main themes or phenomena to qualitative social research in the next periods until today.

That is, the experience of Spanish Civil War and post-war, the Franco Regime ideology and repression, the opposition of the workers and students movements, the exile of intellectual minorities and the emigration of many people to Latin America and Europe. The fourth period we have called it near roots and sociological research 18 roots , goes until the death of Franco in November We emphasise that, although the German and other European universities lose their traditional primacy that the USA ones win , to understand the qualitative perspective of those years in Spain and the years afterwards until today one has to remember the influence at least of psychoanalysis, Marxism and semiotics.

That is, in short, the French universities. One of these Spanish sociologists is Juan F.

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MARSAL, the first master of the sometimes called Barcelona School of qualitative methods, specially the life history methodology in sociology We give a more detailed account of this group in the next section. Then published in , in Barcelona, where he returned and lived until his death in a car accident in So we could say that this branch of qualitative Spanish sociology suffers very soon from being an orphan. The fifth period goes from to The former date is of the first complete sociology curriculum in a public university. The latter date is of the reform of that curriculum. Within the general process of institutionalisation of sociology, there is an increasing official recognition of QSR by the first democratic governments.

The proofs of the cake are two studies. Both studies were based on the discussion group technique. The second study included the analysis of social attitudes towards abortion with discussion groups in , a few months after the Socialist Party won the general elections and with the purpose of changing the law. In this period, nearly all the qualitative methods and techniques have their special issue in a journal, a handbook or relevant study.

It would take much space here to refer to them in detail. Clients from both the public and private sector ordered studies with the known survey and the novelty of qualitative field work, based mainly on indepth interviews and discussion groups. And sometimes the job assigned was a qualitative social research on its own. The sketch of this period becomes more complete with two more rapid brushstrokes related to the institutionalisation aspect.

But the main trend is an increasing use of qualitative methods in general sociological research, not only in market research, which is a challenge for techniques such as the discussion group, whose experts recommend to use it in combination with other sources of information, both qualitative and quantitative.

Some of these experts, like Luis E. Something similar to that had also occurred to the survey some years before. The sixth period goes from until today, so far, but probably until the horizon of the European system or area of higher education.


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The former date is of the first academic course after the Reform of the Plan of Sociology Studies at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid at least in , where it was decided to create two twin subjects Quantitative Methods and Techniques of Social Research and Qualitative Methods and Techniques of Social Research. We can synthesise by saying that this is the coming of age period for qualitative applied research and methodology. One can observe a step further in the processes started in the previous stage.

For instance, we have various comprehensive and specific, made in Spain, qualit ative methods handbooks There were separate sessions for qualitative and quantitative social research in three of the National Spanish Congresses of Sociology the fifth, sixth, and the seventh congress in , and respectively. Although in the last Congress celebrated in there have been joint sessions, closing the circle of a cycle.

Spanish abstract

The key words that represent the trend are QSR specialisation and systematisation. But it can be expressed in other words. That is, of specialisation in the various quantitative and qualitative methods And that is the fruit of an intense social research practice in the near past and in the present. More detail about this stage and on present and future trends is given in the last section.

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In the "continental" panorama that they offer they include a brief reference to the Spanish case, where they mention Juan F. The authors, being respectively of French and German origin, thus deserve special credit for that inclusion. At the present moment, we believe that the Spanish focus of our article will serve to complete and update the most relevant contributions made to the field of biographical research in Spain and, above all, those coming from the field of sociology.

Having renounced to making an inventory, we have opted for a visual approach which would describe the scientific relationships and friendships which have been leaving a documentary trail behind them.

¿Qué es la ciudad postindustrial?

In our case, we prefer that the author of the narration be visible as well. There is no pretension of writing the history; the aim is to recuperate the memory and to avoid that what is close to us is forgotten. They all refer to the centre-periphery structure which is the result of having had a tighter relationship with the United States than with neighbouring countries.

Though the life of Juan F. He then recognised that the methodology taken from positivist psychology and anthropology, and its definition of the case method were not the most adequate ones. He emphasises the connection between the case method of North American sociology of the '20s and the ideology of the sociology of common man MARSAL , p.

He criticises the lack of socio-historical context of the protagonist of the life story beyond his placement within statistical frames. This methodological awareness would then become concrete in the form of a research practice based on the autobiographical genre, where his epistemological evolution would become explicit MARSAL , p. A key passage follows:.

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