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Past perfect subjunctive tense. Conditional mood. Conditional perfect tense. Imperative mood. Past perfect imperative mood. He started to scrutinize his innermost being, his demons, his exhilarations. You must watch her, weigh well her words, and scrutinize her actions. Punish her body to save her soul.

Alexandre Cadain

On verra qui va scruter qui dans cette relation, mon gars. We'll see who's gonna scrutinize who in this relationship, pal. Back then, we did the targeting, had to scrutinize our own intel, think for ourselves. Quelqu'un scrute Someone scrutinize Vous devez rester parfaitement immobile pendant que je vous scrute et vous examine.


You have to remain perfectly still while I examine and scrutinize you. Photographing statues from all angles scrutinizing the details of faces and the gestures that pointed to the sky measuring the changing shadows on the square to create an equation, she persisted in wanting to decrypt the coded message.

Quotes / Citations

He would also be scrutinized by the publicist Conrad hired. He knew that everything would be scrutinized. I know you've had a hard childhood, and you've probably been scrutinized at every school that you've been to, and to you,I'm just another one of those people who wants to put you under a microscope,but It is in these blocks of description with their almost autonomous status that the myth of Paris gets its highest energies. If each Parisian novel of Zola tries to penetrate as authentically and as precisely as possible a certain well circumscribed aspect of the city, this fragment, however, refers to its totality in a twofold way: on the one hand by the constitutive importance of horizon as the imaginary presence of a whole resisting description and recalling nevertheless the totalizing and mythical dimension of the city; on the other hand bringing to mind the presence of this whole in a profusion of totalizing metaphors.

These novels, written within a period of thirteen years, but all conceived under the influence of the fall of the Second Empire and of the constitution of the new republic and the German victory over France, have one common subject: Paris as the great burning center of life. It is a modern Paris, tremendous in its brutal colours of reality and hyperreality that Zola evokes, but it is a past modernity, since the Second Empire has already reached its end when Zola begins to describe this world of overwhelming positivity, a symbol of the jubilant, but brief positivity of a whole epoch.

Yet Zola perceives clearly that during this epoch a new rhythm of life, a new mass civilization has been created which responds to the immense progress of science and industry. The whole first chapter tells one day in the life of the Halls and a first day of return for Florent, a political prisoner escaped from Cayenne who has arrived almost starving in Paris.

Thus Florent arrives at this modern complex of buildings which did not exist yet when he was deported from Paris.

His first impression of these constructions illuminated by gas, intensified by his hunger and his physical weakness, is that of a fairy play of elegant lines and light. To the imaginative expanse of these enormous spaces, to the audaciousness of their poetic rationality must be added the fantastic speed of their realization, able to change in a short time a whole aspect of the city.

The nocturnal vision is the beginning of a series of visions which continue with the changing light of the first morning to the moment of full sunshine. While Florent is remembering the moment of his arrest, the traffic grows more intense, the first pavillons, those with the vegetables, open their doors. He takes Florent away in order to show him the Halls of the Great Market. While the day dawns, they enter the illuminated Halls which Florent once again beholds, struck by this city within the city which resembles a forest and a world:.

Zola vol. Here again, the pure presence transcends itself towards the imaginary or the beautiful, an experience that the eye of no scientific experimenter could have:. Maintenant il entendait le long roulement qui partait des Halles. This is the moment of turmoil and of intensity of colours at their apex:. Ceci tuera cela, le fer tuera la pierre, et les temps sont proches For Claude, the change of paradigm between stone construction and construction in cast iron takes on another significance.

It is the change of a world centered upon religion to a modern world where life itself is a supreme value:. Could they, however, be identified with the reflections of Zola himself? It seems to be evident that Zola wants to replace the imaginary center of the city, which Hugo had created with Notre-Dame de Paris, by its real center which would be the modern construction in cast iron of the Market Halls, a symbol of the material life and its needs. It seems, however, that by the opposition of perspectives of Claude and Florent, Zola gives a profound ambiguity to this center of modern life.

Whereas the Halls as environment are a center of "fat" gras positive and affirmative life, of the life of the stomach, but also of an absolute absence of political consciousness other than that of an affirmation without reserve, Claude, the painter, is the one that transforms this positivity into aesthetic affirmation. The world of nurture, of meat, of vegetables is a world of jubilant presence, even if no painter before him has ever dared to give to this presence of pathetic life all the sublimity which is due to it. But it is exactly this world of presence in itself, this jubilation of the stomach, which causes nausea to Florent, a man of consciousness having his place on the side of the meager ones maigres.

Before Sartre, it is Zola for whom the en-soi is the origin of a nausea of a political kind and, could one say, of a metaphysical kind. Florent is a new Jean Valjean who, however, is not capable of contributing to the progress of the world, nor of reconciling himself with it. Florent remains the man of negation, the man whose project is one of pure change. From the window of his attic he sees the horizon of the city as a living whole different from the false totalization of the stomach. This is the reason why he joins a group of pseudo-revolutionaries, of revolutionary lunatics like himself.

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He will be betrayed, arrested and condemned to a new deportation to Cayenne. If the position of Zola in this novel seems to be ambiguous, it is also necessary to take into consideration the myth of Marjolin and Cadine, a myth of a perverse and cruel paradise, of a degraded nature without consciousness. But it seems that neither the perverse world of Marjolin and Cadine nor the end of Florent are the last word of this novel of Paris in the Second Empire.

Because if with the disappearence of Florent everything seems to have come back to order again, if the world in itself seems to be freed from any irritation, it is this very world whose days are counted. The real end of the novel is the end of the Second Empire. In the evening in his attic, leaning against the window, he contemplates for several minutes the horizon of the city. In an article on description which appeared in the journal Le Voltaire on 8 June and was taken up again in the same year in his The Experimental Novel, Zola explains his intentions about A Love Episode and in particular about his great descriptions of Paris ending its five parts like a kind of panoramic symphony:.

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Zola , The great landscapes of the sky and of the city here are only emanations of life itself and of its impenetrable mystery. The spectacle of life will make her dream of passion and of the great breath of life which she has not experienced:. Paris, avec le chaos inextricable de ses pierres, luisait comme un cristal. In A Page of Love the totality of the city is present only in the mode of the unreadable. When Jeanne, her daughter, asks her, she has to confess her ignorance. The city remains a stranger to her, and it is exactly the spectacle of this unreadable strangeness which fascinates her:.


Life transforms itself into a vision, but the real presence is that of breath. Right at the beginning, the narrator says of Helen living her calm and retired life that "she had a light breath", whereas her daughter suffers from "trouble in breathing".

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The city in its perpetual changes, in its energy, will bring to her its breath of life and make her feel her calmness as an absence of life. The life of the city becomes breath, and this breath seems to inspire the dynamism of discourse with its transposition of the principal accent from the end of the phrase to its verbal forms, and that is to the middle of phrase, which is unusual in French.

This fascinating and strange breath of life gets its incarnation with the person of Doctor Henri Deberle who will become for Helen the object of a violent passion. The descriptions of the panorama of Paris following the moments of the day and of the seasons of the year will follow the line of intensity of this passion, from the moment of its awakening up to the moment when with the death of Jeanne it will find its end. Deberle is for Helen the life of Paris, the fascination of the unknown.

He will become her lover, but he will remain a stranger to her, unknown like the city:. II, ; This page torn out of the book of life is also a page torn out of the book of the city. The life of the city will continue, the life of Helen will continue far from Paris.

And yet, what this torn-out page contains is the privileged moment of a perception of the city by a consciousness which opening itself to the city, discovers itself. This history of the ascendence and the fall of Nana, empress in the empire of senses, is at the same time the allegorical history of the Second Empire and its fall. What will he do?

And then? Supposing this definition to be pertinent, it might appear that Zola was no naturalist at all. It seems rather that he uses this programmatic naturalism as a screen behind which he follows a quite different program. Thus the world of theatre in Nana becomes that of the demi-monde which itself will become the incarnation of the social world under the sign of the Second Empire. The demi-monde with its heroine Nana is a world of ambiguity between theatre and prostitution, a world of appearance and promiscuity. It is here that the physiognomy of an epoch is made manifest. Far from being the novel of a closed world, that of the theatre, Nana is the novel of an epoch.

The demi-monde, as it appears in its loud colours under the brush of Zola, is a promise of happiness in the realm of the imaginary, that of the reconciliation of social classes which the revolution of had expected. Zola sees a long decay of the old social order, whereas, freed from the moral constraints which weaken it, it is sexuality, promiscuity, prostitution playing the grimacing comedy of a world between the closed worlds of society.

In this world of appearances of pleasure and illusionary alliances, Nana, a goldfly and girl of the people, pursues her work of destruction, of moral dissolution, before she becomes the victim of physical destruction by illness. Twice the novel insists upon the ideological role of Nana. In an article of the Figaro, the journalist Fauchery gives an allegorical portrait of the goldfly, which is nobody else than Nana:. Ruined, broken, he will return to the religion of his fathers, a vicious man who has neither been able to free himself from the chains of his degrading passion nor from the chains of his class and his religion.

It is through the eyes of Muffat that we are introduced to the world of which Nana is about to become the uncontested and fatal queen.

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And it is through his eyes too that we perceive one of the great tableaux de Paris of this novel, that of the Passage des Panoramas, a symbolic place of the demi-monde and its promiscuity. Muffat has come too early, full of suspicion, for Nana does not act in the new play, and yet she has gone to the theatre, as Muffat has been told by the concierge:. Through this distracted gaze of an impatient man afraid of being seen and having to pass his time in waiting, we have the experience of a whole phenomenology of kitsch.

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  • We see "a display of papers, of glass bowls with landscapes and flowers in them". It is a gaze without consciousness which presents to us the ordinary objects of a world, which the count despises as much as he is fascinated by its very vulgarity:. II, sq. Twice the Passage des Panoramas reappears in different lights. When finally the Count has found Nana, who wanted to avoid him, because that night she already had another arrangement, it is once again in the Passage des Panoramas that she stops Muffat in order to look at the display of a jeweller.

    Beach of Senix

    The world of the passage is the world of Nana:. Elle adorait le passage des Panoramas. Left alone by Nana, after a despairing march through the nocturnal streets of Paris, de Muffat arrives once again at the deserted and dark passage closed now by bars from which emanates the humidity of a cellar:.