Such differences might arise partly because women are more likely to take on tasks which require competence, but do not improve chances of promotion e. Nonetheless, research on the power of gender stereotypes and decisions about leadership is conclusive — all else being equal, women are judged more harshly than men e. Social roles include both descriptive beliefs that define what men and women are like, and also prescriptive norms that define how individuals should be and how they should not be Eagly et al.
According to social role theory Eagly and Wood, , , typical gender roles e. Indeed, because people are frequently exposed to typical sex-typed behavior, women are typically perceived as, and expected to be, communal e. In those workplaces where agency instead of communality is expected, stereotypes produce distinctive penalties for women Caleo and Heilman, In particular, meta-analysis shows that leadership roles are still typically viewed as being agentic Koenig et al.
When women demonstrate success in leadership roles, they can be penalized because they violate gender-prescriptive norms Heilman et al. Ultimately, when people interrupt gender stereotypes, they can suffer consequences that undermine and devalue their social and economic status Rudman and Phelan, Women who put themselves forward for positions of leadership can therefore face backlashes that undermine their status Rudman and Phelan, In support of this idea, the devaluation of women leaders is more pronounced when they occupy male-dominated roles Eagly et al. Meta-analysis has also highlighted that women who display explicitly dominant behaviors e.
Substantial evidence suggests that the stereotype of a typical leader is highly congruent with masculine traits Eagly and Karau, ; Koenig et al. The incongruence between the stereotype of a typical leader and feminine traits may explain why women face more challenging thresholds for promotion.
For example, Lyness and Heilman found that women who occupied management positions that were typically characterized by organizational power and influence i. Although research indicates that evaluations of leaders and promotion to leadership positions are likely to be biased in favor of men, a meta-analysis Koch et al. Previous studies have found that gender role incongruity see Heilman and Eagly, contributes to gender inequality in leadership positions, but to date there is no explicit experimental evidence on gender biases in the recognition of leadership potential.
Given the importance of recognizing and effectively managing talent for businesses Church, , it is essential to investigate gender as a boundary condition to perceptions of leadership potential. Holding constant the actual traits and performance of candidates, two experimental studies used simulated hiring decisions to investigate whether leadership potential is overlooked in women, but not in men.
We used a simulation of organizational hiring of candidates applying for leadership positions. This experimental vignette methodology was used as it is regarded as a reliable and accurate method that allows greater control of the research process Handley et al. In addition, we recruited participants through online crowdsourcing portals to provide relevant samples e.
Experiment 1 tested the effects of candidate gender on the recognition of leadership potential. Specifically, we tested whether there is a preference for potential in both male and female candidates, or whether people overlook leadership potential in female candidates. Specifically, we hypothesized that participants would prefer leadership potential over leadership performance Hypothesis 1. We expected that participants would prefer leadership potential more in male candidates than in female candidates Hypothesis 2.
More importantly, when it comes to candidate choice, we hypothesized that participants would prefer leadership potential over leadership performance in male candidates Hypothesis 3 ; but leadership performance over leadership potential in female candidates Hypothesis 4. In addition, we hypothesized that high leadership potential male candidates would be selected more than high potential female candidates Hypothesis 5. All experiments were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the School of Psychology Ethics Committee at the University of Kent, United Kingdom.
The protocol was approved using the School of Psychology Ethics system. All participants gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.officegoodlucks.com/order/86/410-rastrear-un.php
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All additional candidate information e. Participants were presented simultaneously with four candidates male candidate with leadership potential, male candidate with leadership performance, female candidate with leadership potential, female candidate with leadership performance; see Appendix in random order from left to right. Imagine that you work in a human resources role and you are part of the team responsible for recruiting and hiring new employees. ALPHATech are currently expanding their business and as part of this are recruiting for a number of positions within the company.
Imagine that you are part of the hiring panel and you have been given some candidates to evaluate. Candidate potential and performance were manipulated by adjusting the score on two assessments: leadership achievement and leadership potential. Specifically, as in Tormala et al. The Assessment of Leadership Potential score was accompanied by the following paragraph 1 , which varied depending on the condition high or moderate leadership potential :.
High and moderate scores were used rather than high and low scores, in order to focus attention on the dimension at which the candidate excelled rather than suggesting any weakness see Appendix. The focus on leadership potential or leadership performance was reinforced through comments ostensibly taken from a panel review, for example:. She has some exciting new ideas for the future of the team and the organization, which could offer the opportunity to increase sales and performance in the future.
The performance in his current role has exceeded expectations. We hypothesized that participants would be more willing to hire candidates with leadership potential and would expect those candidates to be more successful than candidates with leadership performance Hypothesis 1. Furthermore, we expected these effects to be stronger for male candidates Hypothesis 2 and Hypothesis 3. We did not hypothesize participant gender effects but included this factor as exploratory. We expected the opposite pattern for female candidates Hypothesis 4.
Simple main effects of candidate gender within levels of participant gender were analyzed. This was not hypothesized, but demonstrates ingroup bias for female participants. There were no simple main effects of participant gender within level of candidate gender. Means and standard errors by candidate gender, participant gender, and leadership characteristic for candidate hiring and expected success Experiment 1. We decomposed the three-way interaction by participant gender. Table 1 shows that female participants expected the female candidate with leadership performance to be more successful than the male candidate with leadership performance.
Wilcoxon signed rank tests provided support for our hypotheses. In brief, in support of our hypotheses, male candidates with leadership potential were ranked as more impressive than male candidates with leadership performance. In contrast, female candidates with leadership performance were ranked as more impressive than female candidates with leadership potential.
In brief, results supported our hypotheses, with male candidates with leadership potential ranked more highly than those with leadership performance, but that this would not be the case for female candidates. Indeed, female candidates with leadership performance were ranked higher than female candidates with leadership potential. We did not find evidence for Hypothesis 1, an overall preference for potential. In line with an overlooked potential pattern, we found that participants expected male candidates with leadership potential to be more successful than male candidates with leadership performance Hypothesis 3 , although this was not the case for the candidate hiring measure.
When participants ranked female candidates, they preferred leadership performance over leadership potential consistently across measures support for Hypothesis 4. This type of ranking decision closely matches actual hiring processes, where final choices rely on rule-based selection criteria e. We did not hypothesize effects of participant gender, but exploratory analysis revealed some differences.
Female participants also expected male candidates with leadership potential to be more successful than male candidates with leadership performance. In this study, female candidates were rated as more hirable than male candidates. This unexpected finding is in line with a recent meta-analysis which showed that women are rated more effective than men in senior levels Paustian-Underdahl et al. The stimulus materials presented to participants in Experiment 1 did not specify the level of leadership being recruited for.
The information implied that the role was a relatively junior leadership position. This scenario had reasonable face validity because many fast-track programs are specifically designed to develop the potential of emerging talent Singh et al. Moreover, the principal motivation behind identifying leadership potential is to generate a pipeline of future leaders, which has major benefits e.
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Nonetheless, the use of leadership potential as a selection criterion may be more common in the case of explicitly senior positions because many of the assessment tools used for selecting senior executives are related closely to those used to gauge high potential Grabner and Moers, In Experiment 2, as well as retesting the overlooked potential effect, we therefore modified materials to highlight that the candidates were being considered for senior leadership positions.
We also bolstered the measurement of the evaluation of expected success by using a more reliable multi-item measure. We also recruited a larger sample of participants. Finally, to provide a more direct test of Hypotheses , we asked participants to explicitly rank whom they would hire for the job. Individuals were invited, via an online platform, Qualtrics , to take part in a study on organizational decision-making.
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The experiment consisted of two phases. Participants were presented with an imitation Business News article describing the announcement of the retirement, and subsequent search for replacement, of the Director of Financial Affairs of a fictitious company, Tell Inc. The article provided background information about the organization, and a brief description that described Tell Inc.
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Tell Inc. This is a very important role for Tell Inc.